The famous tune of the Popeye the Sailorman cartoon is based on the "Sailor's Hornpipe".
It was originally titled the "College Hornpipe" and became known as the "Sailor's Hornpipe" through its association with the performance of the hornpipe dance, typically performed on the stage in nautical costume.
Most likely originating in England, "Sailor's Hornpipe" was imported to North America where it entered traditional repertoire and became fairly widely known, still with its nautical connotations--so strong was the association, in fact, that it was selected as the theme song of a popular mid-20th century animated cartoon character, Popeye the Sailorman.
One of the earliest printings of the tune appears on page 13 in a volume entitled "Compleat Tutor for the German Flute", published by Jonathan Fentum, London, c. 1766
In America it was published somewhere at the end of the 18th Century in the music manuscript copybook of Henry Livingston, Jr. (as "Colledge Hornpipe", set for the German flute).
In 1786 it was published on page 12 of Henry Beck’s Flute Book
John Philip Sousa's "Jack Tar March", written in 1903, features "The Sailor's Hornpipe" tune in one of its segments.
In 1903 Sousa had recorded 3 takes that were released on Victor 2419
In 1903 "Jack Tar" was also recorded by the Edison Grand Concert Band,
Released on Edison Gold Moulded Record: 8524
Listen here: http://cylinders.library.ucsb.edu/mp3s/2000/2692/cusb-cyl2692d.mp3
Somewhere between 1903 and 1905 a Columbia Band recorded a version, that was released on a Standard Disc Record # 1587
Listen here ("Sailor's Hornpipe" is at 1 min and 32 sec in the YT below)
On October 26, 1905 Sousa's Band recorded a version for the Victor-label
Listen here ("Sailor's Hornpipe" is at 1 min and 19 sec and again at 2 min and 5 sec)
Somewhere between 1901-1907 Lord Lyndoch recorded a version of "The sailor's Hornpipe"
Listen here: (the "Popeye" part starts at 1 min and 15 sec on the soundfile of the next link)
The tune is also one of the movements ("Jack's The Lad") in Sir Henry Wood's "Fantasia on British Sea Songs", a medley of British sea songs arranged by Sir Henry Wood in 1905 to mark the centenary of the Battle of Trafalgar. For many years it was seen as an indispensable item at the BBC's Last Night of the Proms concert.
In 1906 Leopold Moeslein recorded "Sailor's Hornpipe" for Edison
Released June 1906 on Edison Gold Moulded Record # 9293
Edison release Leopold Moeslein
Listen here: http://cylinders.library.ucsb.edu/mp3s/3000/3076/cusb-cyl3076d.mp3
(c) Charles D'Almaine (1909) (as "Sailor's Hornpipe")
Released on Indestructible Record #1108
Listen here: http://cylinders.library.ucsb.edu/mp3s/3000/3992/cusb-cyl3992d.mp3
In 1921 Francis Quinn recorded a similarly titled "Sailor's Hornpipe", which has another tune
(c) Jasper Bisbee (1921) (as "College Hornpipe")
Recorded November 24, 1923
Released on Edison 51382
(c) John Baltzell (1927) (as "Sailor's Hornpipe")
Recorded March 1927 in New York
Released on Banner 2159, Oriole 945, Paramount 3017, Broadway 8051, Regal 8392, Domino 0195
In 1928 the song Barnacle Bill the Sailor also contained a fragment of the "Sailor's Hornpipe".
Here´s Frank Luther's 1928 version ("Sailor's Hornpipe" is at 55 sec)
In the first Fleischer Popeye cartoon, Popeye the Sailor (1933), "The Sailor's Hornpipe" tune was used in the cartoon's theme. And "Barnacle Bill" was used as the recurring theme for the Bluto character.
A later Fleischer Popeye cartoon, "Beware of Barnacle Bill" (1935), is a mock operetta based around a toned-down version of the song "Barnacle Bill The Sailor".
From then on the "Sailor's Hornpipe" tune was played in all of the Popeye cartoons, usually as the first part of the opening credits theme, which then segued into an instrumental of "I'm Popeye the Sailor Man".
In 1933 Groucho Marx does the traditional dance to this number at one point, as part of the opening number in the film, Duck Soup.
(c) The Tornados (1962) (as "Pop'eye twist")
the B-side of their very first 45.
(c) Spotnicks (1963) (as "Sailor's Hornpipe (Bach Goes To Sea)")
(c) Bill Monroe and his Bluegrass Boys (1963)
Recorded March 20, 1963 in Nashville
released in 1965 on the album "Bluegrass Instrumentals"
(c) Mike Oldfield (1973) (as "Sailor' s Hornpipe")
The Sailor's Hornpipe is the finale of part two of Mike Oldfield's Tubular Bells. Most likely Mike Oldfield followed Henry Wood's 1905 "Jack's The Lad" version.
zondag 20 augustus 2017
zondag 13 augustus 2017
"Happy Birthday to You" is one of the most sung songs in the world.
The melody comes from the song "Good Morning to All", which has traditionally been attributed to American sisters Patty and Mildred J. Hill in 1893, although the claim that the sisters composed the tune is disputed (SEE NOTES AT THE BOTTOM OF THIS PAGE)
Mildred, who taught and played organ, wrote the music. Her sister Patty, who was head of the Louisville Experimental Kindergarten School in Kentucky, wrote the lyrics to this children's song to be sung in class, first thing in the morning.
In 1896 the song was published by Clayton F. Summy, Co in Chicago, on page 3 of the book "Song Stories For The Kindergarten".
It´s on page 19 of the next PDF-file
It is likely that teachers and students spontaneously adapted the published version of "Good Morning to All" to celebrate birthdays in the classroom, changing the lyrics to "Happy Birthday" in the process.
The complete text of "Happy Birthday to You" first appeared in print as the final four lines of Edith Goodyear Alger's poem "Roy's Birthday", published in her book "A Primer of Work and Play", copyrighted by D. C. Heath in 1901, with no reference to the words being sung.
From then on "Happy Birthday" with the "Good Morning Melody" became increasingly popular and was sung on almost everybody's birthday and was also used in cartoons, movies and musicals, without crediting the Hill sisters.
Jessica Hill (sister of Patty and Mildred) no longer endured the uncrediting use of the Hill-melody and sued all these Happy Birthday profits successfully, by demonstrating the undeniable similarities between "Good Morning to All" and "Happy Birthday to You" in court, Jessica was able to secure the copyright of "Happy Birthday to You" for her sisters in 1934. The Chicago-based music publisher Clayton F. Summy Company, working with Jessica Hill, published and copyrighted "Happy Birthday" in 1935.
A few years later, Summy’s company was bought out by a New York accountant, John Sengstack, who renamed it Birch Tree Ltd. They held on to the publishing for “Happy Birthday” until 1988, when Warner-Chappell, the largest music publisher in the world, purchased Birch Tree for $25 million. Today the song brings in about $2 million in royalties annually, with proceeds split between Warner-Chappell and the Hill Foundation.
(Both sisters died unmarried and childless, so the money has presumably been going to charity or to nephew Archibald Hill, ever since Patty Hill passed away in 1946.)
But American law professor Robert Brauneis, who extensively researched the song, concluded in 2010 that "It is almost certainly no longer under copyright".
"Copyright and the World’s Most Popular Song" by Robert Brauneis
In 2013, based in large part on Brauneis's research, Jennifer_Nelson's "Good Morning to You Productions", a company producing a documentary about "Good Morning to All", sued Warner/Chappell (who had boughts all the rights to the song in 1988) for falsely claiming copyright to the song.
On July 28, 2015, one day prior to a scheduled ruling, Nelson's attorneys Betsy Manifold and Mark Rifkin presented new evidence which they argued was conclusive proof that the song was in the public domain.
In 1927 a book "The Everyday Song Book" was published which contained both "Good Morning To All" and Happy Birthday".
A line of text below the title said: "Special permission through courtesy of The Clayton F Summy Co".
As this was the 12th edition the lawyers tried to find earlier editions, and in the archives of The University of Pittsburgh, they came upon the fourth edition, published in 1922, which included the famous Happy Birthday song without any copyright notice. This book, plaintiffs believe, establishes that "Happy Birthday" lyrics were dedicated to the public years before the copyright registration that Warner/Chappell is relying upon was made.
In September 2015, a federal judge declared that the Warner/Chappell copyright claim was invalid, ruling that the copyright registration applied only to a specific piano arrangement of the song, and not to its lyrics and melody. So "Happy Birthday" is in the public domain.
Here's the original filing from RECAP:
The origin of the lyrics for “Happy Birthday” coupled with the tune goes back even further than 1922. The earliest publication of the words (coupled with the tune) were printed in a 1911 song book called "The Elementary Worker and His Work".
No author was credited, though the book mentioned that the song was to be sung to the tune of “Good Morning.”
Before "Happy Birthday" was copyrighted it was used freely, as in this 1931 Mickey Mouse cartoon
"Happy Birthday To You" was also sung in Bosko's Party, a Warner Bros. cartoon of 1932, where a chorus of animals sings it twice through.
"Happy Birthday To You" was sung to Shirley Temple on her 6th Birthday on April 23, 1934.
And the same year it was sung to Shirley in the movie "Take A Bow"
And when the song was published the recordings came in a fast pace
(c) Ray Nichols and his Four Towers Orch (1935)
Recorded April 1, 1935, New York
Released on Bluebird B-5921
(c) Okeh Novelty (1938)
(c) Decca Band (1938)
(c) Lang Thompson & His Orch (1940)
(c) Raymond Scott and his New Orchestra (1940)
(c) Tommy Tucker 1946
(c) Bing Crosby (1947)
Recorded March 28, 1947 in Los Angeles
Released on Decca 24273
This was released in 1948 as part of a 4 shellacs album : Auld Lang Syne (Decca A-663)
On Februay 27, 1936 Bing had already sung the song on his Kraft Music Hall radio show (along with Lotte Lehmann and Ann Sothern)
(c) Johnny Long (1948)
(c) Dick "Two Ton" Baker And The Maple City Four (1950)
"Happy Birthday, Mr. President" as sung by actress and singer Marilyn Monroe on May 19, 1962, for President John F. Kennedy at a celebration of his 45th birthday, 10 days before the actual date (May 29)
On September 7, 1963 The Beatles recorded "Happy Birthday Dear Saturday Club" at London's Playhouse Theatre.
It was aired on October 5, 1963 to celebrate the 5th anniversary of BBC's "Saturday Club" programme.
In 1968 The Idle Race plays a portion of "Happy Birthday" on the "Birthday Party" album.
In 1969, the song had its longest-distance broadcast when the crew of the orbiting Apollo 9 sang Happy Birthday to NASA director Christopher Kraft.
The message and song starts at 17 min and 30 sec in the next MP3
Listen here: https://ia601409.us.archive.org/22/items/Apollo9Highlights/Apollo9Highlights.mp3
(c) Aaron Copland (1969) (as "Happy Anniversary")
Based on the well-known "Happy Birthday" tune, this short piece was originally part of a group of variations by famous composers commissioned for the Philadelphia Orchestra's seventieth anniversary. The occasion included President Nixon's presentation of the Medal of Freedom to Eugene Ormandy. It has since been performed for other occasions, among them several Copland birthday celebrations.
On August 21, 1969 Elvis Presley sang "Happy Birtday To You" in concert in Las Vegas for James Burton.
In 1986 Ernie sang "Happy Birthday to U" in episode 2234 of Sesame Street.
NOTES: The lyrics of two songs are certainly similar to "Good Morning to All" / "Happy Birthday To You", in that they involve heavy repetition of a simple greeting.
The first song "Happy Greeting to All" was published in 1859 by Horace Waters in "The Sabbath School Bell"
The refrain is lyrically very similar:
"Happy Greeting to all! Happy Greeting to all! Happy Greeting, happy greeting, happy greeting to all!"
But the melody bears no resemblance at all. Listen for youself on the next link:
And the second song "A Happy New Year" was published in 1877 in the book "The story of the Jubilee Singers : with their songs" (Song # 92 on page 213)
The first lines of "A Happy New Year" are also very similar lyrically
"What a happy new year! What a happy new year! What a happy, what a happy, what a happy new year!"
But here also the melody is different.
dinsdag 25 juli 2017
Aislean an Oigfear (1796) / As a Beam O'er the Face of the Waters (1808) / Londonderry Air (1855) / Would God I Were The Tender Apple Blossom (1894) / Danny Boy (1913) / Hand In Hand Achter Oranje (1990)
"Londonderry Air" is an air that originated in County Londonderry, Northern Ireland. The song "Danny Boy" uses the tune, with a set of lyrics written in the early 20th century.
Londonderry Air - Wikipedia
The tune was collected by Jane Ross (1810-1879) of Limavady in the county Londonderry.
Ross stated that she had taken down the tune in Limavady in 1851, when she heard it played by an itinerant fiddler. One of Ireland's most distinguished folk song collectors, Sam Henry, states in "Songs of the People" a regular weekly feature in the Northern Constitution (1923- 1939), that blind Jimmy McCurry (1830-1910) was the fiddler referred to by Jane Ross.
Ross submitted the tune to music collector George Petrie, and it was then published by the Society for the Preservation and Publication of the Melodies of Ireland in the 1855 book "The Ancient Music of Ireland", which Petrie edited. The tune was listed as an anonymous air ("Name Unknown"), with a note attributing its collection to Jane Ross of Limavady.
The origin of the tune was for a long time somewhat mysterious, as no other collector of folk tunes encountered it, and all known examples are descended from Ross's submission to Petrie's collection. In a 1934 article, Anne Geddes Gilchrist suggested that the performer Ross heard played the song with extreme rubato, causing Ross to mistake the time signature of the piece for common time (4/4) rather than 3/4. Gilchrist asserted that adjusting the rhythm of the piece as she proposed produced a tune more typical of Irish folk music.
In 1979, Hugh Shields found a long-forgotten traditional song which was very similar to Gilchrist's modified version of the melody. The song, "Aislean an Oigfear" (or "Aisling an Óigfhir", "The young man's dream"), had been transcribed by Edward Bunting in 1792, based on a performance by harper Donnchadh Ó Hámsaigh (Denis Hampsey) at the Belfast Harp Festival. Bunting published it in 1796 in "A General Collection of the Ancient Irish Music vol 1".
It was song #17 on page 10 from that book:
Here´s a MIDI of Bunting´s arrangement of "Aisling an Óigfhir"
And here´s a Youtube showing how that 1792 performance of Denis Hempsey might have sounded.
Aisling an Óigfhir - Siobhán Armstrong
The full article which Dr Hugh Shields published in 1979 is here:
In 1808 Thomas Moore (1770-1852) was probably the first one to write lyrics to the tune of "Aislean an Oigfear-The Young Man's Dream"
This song "As a Beam O'er the Face of the Waters May Glow" was included in the book "A Selection of Irish Melodies. With Symphonies and Accompaniments by Sir John Stevenson (Mus. Doc.) and Characteristic words by Thomas Moore Esq."
In 1914 Alma Gluck made a recording of the Thomas Moore version.
(c) Alma Gluck (1914) (as "As a Beam O'er the Face of the Waters")
With the Victor Orchestra
Recorded March 6, 1914 in Camden, New Jersey
Released on single-side disc Victor 64415
Also released on double-sided disc Victor 648
The most popular lyrics for the tune are "Danny_Boy" ("Oh Danny Boy, the pipes, the pipes are calling"), written by English lawyer Frederic Edward Weatherly in 1910, initially to a different air, the song gained no popularity and was destined for a life of obscurity. But it was when his sister-in-law, Margaret, introduced Fred to one of her favourite Irish melodies, he saw a new opportunity. He reset his words to the 'old Irish air' and republished it in 1913
Weatherly gave the song to the vocalist Elsie Griffin, who made it one of the most popular songs in the new century; and, in 1915, Ernestine Schumann-Heink produced the first recording of "Danny Boy". That recording was destroyed and in 1917 she recorded the song again for the Victor-label
(c) Ernestine Schumann-Heink (1917) (as "Danny Boy")
Recorded September 26, 1917 in Camden, New Jersey
Released on single-side disc Victor 88592
Also released on double-sided disc Victor 6276
Victor matrix C-16502. Danny boy / Ernestine Schumann-Heink - Discography of American Historical Recordings
However around 1880, Alfred Perceval Graves, a friend of Fred Weatherley, had already written two lyrics to the melody and felt that Fred had poached the folk tune from him and never spoke to him again as a result.
Weatherley wrote; After my song had been accepted by the publisher I got to know that A.P. Graves had written two sets of words to the same melody: "Emer's Farewell" and "Erin's Apple Blossom" and I wrote to tell him what I had done. He took up a strange attitude. I am afraid my old friend Graves did not take my explanation in the spirit which I hoped from the author of those splendid words, "Father O'Flynn".
The excact title of Graves' song was "Love's Wishes" (or "Would I Were Erin's Apple Blossom o'er You"). Graves later stated "that setting was, to my mind, too much in the style of church music, and was not, I believe, a success in consequence."
The lyrics and music were in his book: "Irish Songs And Ballads" (1882)
The excact title of Graves' other song was "Emer's Farewell to Cucullain"
The lyrics and music were on page 3 in his book: "Songs of Old Ireland" (1882)
In 1892 Katharine Tynan Hinkson adapted Alfred Perceval Graves' lyrics and kept the tune for her composition "Irish Love Song" (or "Would God I Were The Tender Blossom")
(c) Oscar Seagle (1915) (as "Would I Were The Tender Apple Blossom")
Recorded June 23, 1915 in New York
Released on Columbia A 5700
Columbia matrix 37336. Would I were the tender apple blossom / Oscar Seagle - Discography of American Historical Recordings
(c) Pablo Casals (1922) ("Would God I Were The Tender Blossom")
Pablo Casals violoncello solo - piano accompaniment by Romano Romani
Recorded January 24, 1922 in
Released on Columbia # 80159
(c) John McCormack (1923) (as ("Would God I Were The Tender Blossom")
Recorded September 26, 1923 in Camden New Jersey
Released on Victor 983
Victor matrix B-28608. Would God I were the tender apple blossom / John McCormack - Discography of American Historical Recordings
(c) Glenn Miller (1940) (as "Danny Boy") (#17 Hit USA)
Judy Garland recorded the song in 1940 as part of her Irish-themed musical "Little Nellie Kelly", which was also Garland's first venture into adult roles. However, the song in question was cut from the finished film.
(c) Bing Crosby (1943) (as "Danny Boy")
With John Scott Trotter and his Orchestra
Recorded July 5, 1941 in Los Angeles.
(c) Conway Twitty (1959) (as "Danny Boy") (#10 USA Hit)
Recorded July 10, 1959 in Nashville, TN -
Released on MGM K-12826
(c) Patti LaBelle and Her Bluebells (1964) (as "Danny Boy") (#76 USA Hit)
(c) Johnny Cash (1965) (as "Danny Boy")
Recorded December 20-21, 1964 in Nashville, TN.
Released on the album "Orange Blossom Special".
In 2002 Johnny Cash would re-record the song for the album "American IV: The Man Comes Around".
(c) Elvis Presley (1976) (as "Danny Boy")
Recorded February 5, 1976 in The Jungle Room, Graceland, Memphis
Released on the album "From Elvis Presley Boulevard, Memphis, Tennessee"
In 1979 Thin Lizzy incorporated an instrumental version of "Danny Boy" in the last song of the album "Black Rose".
(c) Thin Lizzy (1979) (as "Róisín Dubh (Black Rose): A Rock Legend"
Listen here ("Danny Boy" starts at 2 min and 10 sec)
Thin Lizzy had previously recorded an Jimi Hendrix-styled instrumental version, titled "Dan", on their Tribute to Deep Purple album in 1972. For this album they used the pseudonym Funky Junction.
(c) Het Nederlands Elftal en De Havenzangers met Ron Brandsteder (1990) (as "Hand In Hand Achter Oranje") (Dutch lyrics by Peter Koelewijn and Tom Peters)
The original air is believed by some to even date back to Rory Dall O'Cahan (c1550-1660), an Irish harpist (born in County Atrim, Ulster), who lived in Scotland in the late 17th century, were he died in Eglinton Castle, Kilwinning, North Ayrshire.
The tune he wrote was called "O'Cahan's Lament", inspired by the fact that in 1609 during the Plantation of Ulster, his family´s land was confiscated by English and Scottish planters.
Denis O'Hampsey, another blind harper from the Roe Valley brought the melody down to the 19th century. Denis was born at Craigmore near Garvagh in 1695, lived in three different centuries and died in 1807 at the age of 112 years. At an early age he decided to adopt music as a career and he commenced his studies under Bridget O'Cahan, who was related to Rory Dall O'Cahan.
Denis inherited a considerable repertoire from Bridget including "O'Cahan's Lament". Denis was to introduce this air throughout Ireland and Scotland as a result of his extensive travels in both countries. Denis O'Hampsey was one of ten harpers who assembled in Belfast in response to a general invitation to attend a Harp Festival in 1792.
Edward Bunting, a visitor at the 1792 Harp festival, was appointed to take down the airs in an attempt to revive and perpetuate the ancient music of Ireland.
In 1796 Denis O'Hampsey's version was published in Bunting's book "A General Collection of the Ancient Irish Music vol 1", which I mentioned earlier on in this post.
Charted versions of "Danny Boy" in the US Charts: see link below
More versions here:
A very thorough study of Danny Boy
zondag 16 juli 2017
The Elfin Knight (1670) / Scarborough Fair (1891) / Strawberry Lane (1954) / The Lover's Tasks (1956) / Girl From The North Country (1963)
"Scarborough Fair" is a traditional English ballad about the Yorkshire town of Scarborough.
This English folk song dates back to late medieval times, when the seaside resort of Scarborough was an important venue for tradesmen from all over England. Founded well over a thousand years ago as Skarthaborg by the norman Skartha, the Viking settlement in North Yorkshire in the north-west of England became a very important port as the dark ages drew to a close. Scarborough and its surroundings Scarborough Fair was not a fair as we know it today (although it attracted jesters and jugglers) but a huge forty-five day trading event.
In the Middle Ages Scarborough Fair, permitted in a royal charter of 1253, held a six-week trading festival attracting merchants from all over Europe. It ran from Assumption Day, 15 August, until Michaelmas Day, 29 September. The fair continued to be held for 500 years, from the 13th to the 18th century. As eventually the harbour started to decline, so did the fair, and Scarborough is a quiet, small town now.
Scarborough Fair (fair) - Wikipedia
The song "Scarborough Fair" relates the tale of a young man who instructs the listener to tell his former love to perform for him a series of impossible tasks, such as making him a shirt without a seam and then washing it in a dry well, adding that if she completes these tasks he will take her back. Often the song is sung as a duet, with the woman then giving her lover a series of equally impossible tasks, promising to give him his seamless shirt once he has finished.
As the versions of the ballad known under the title "Scarborough Fair" are usually limited to the exchange of these impossible tasks, many suggestions concerning the plot have been proposed, including the hypothesis that it is about the Great Plague of the late Middle Ages. The lyrics of "Scarborough Fair" appear to have something in common with an obscure Scottish ballad, "The Elfin Knight" (Child Ballad #2), which has been traced at least as far back as 1670 and may well be earlier. In this ballad, an elf threatens to abduct a young woman to be his lover unless she can perform an impossible task ("For thou must shape a sark to me / Without any cut or heme, quoth he"); she responds with a list of tasks that he must first perform ("I have an aiker of good ley-land / Which lyeth low by yon sea-strand").
As the song spread, it was adapted, modified, and rewritten to the point that dozens of versions existed by the end of the 18th century, although only a few are typically sung nowadays. The references to the traditional English fair, "Scarborough Fair" and the refrain "parsley, sage, rosemary, and thyme" date to 19th century versions, and the refrain may have been borrowed from the ballad "Riddles Wisely Expounded", (Child Ballad #1), which has a similar plot.
A number of older versions refer to locations other than Scarborough Fair, including Wittingham Fair, Cape Ann, "twixt Berwik and Lyne", etc. Many versions do not mention a place-name, and are often generically titled ("The Lover's Tasks", "My Father Gave Me an Acre of Land", etc.).
The earliest documented British variant is a long ballad of 20 verses on a black letter broadside.
A proper New Ballad, Entituled,
The wind hath blown my Plaid away,
Or, A discourse betwixt a young Man, and the Elphin-Knight,
To be sung, with its own pleasant New Tune
EBBA Print Ballad Page
John Pinkerton in his "Ancient Scottish Poems" (Vol. 2, 1786, p. 496) claimed that this broadside was "printed about 1670"
A version called "Cambrick Shirt" was first published in the 1784 in "Gammer Gurton's Garland", a book of nursery songs and rhymes. Here we can find for the first time the now common refrain with the list of herbs ("Parsley, Sage, Rosemary and Thyme") as well as the "true lover of mine" in the fourth line.
"Gammer Gurton's Garland, or the Nursery Parnassus" collected and edited by Joseph_Ritson, was originally issued at Stockton, as a small twopenny brochure, in 32mo, without a date, "printed by and for R. Christopher". Only one copy of that book is known to excist.
Gammer G's Garland - The British Library
Sir Harris Nicholas says it appeared in the year 1783, "one of the most prolific of Ritson's pen".
Haslewood is of opinion that it appeared about the same period as "The Bishopric Garland, or Durham Minstrel", which was printed at Stockton for the same R. Christopher in 1784.
"Gammer Gurton's Garland" was again printed, with additions, 1810, in 8vo.
In 1882 Francis J. Child subsumed this family of songs in his "English and Scottish Popular Ballads" (1882) under No. 2, "The Elfin Knight".
In this post I take a look at the evoluation of the version that became an evergreen, when it was recorded by Simon and Garfunkel in 1966 as "Scarborough Fair/Canticle".
Already in December 1954 Seamus Ennis recorded a version as "Strawberry Lane" sung by Thomas Moran from Drumrahill, Co. Leitrim (Ireland). This version has the bare bones of "Scarborough Fair": but has not the commonly known melody.
In his version Moran sings "every rose grows merry betimes" rather than "parsley, sage, rosemary and thyme". And the "true lover of mine" is also a recurring line in this version.
This version was collected by Peter Kennedy and Alan Lomax and released in 1961 on the album "The Folk Songs Of Britain - Volume 4 - The Child Ballads"
The earliest commercial recording of the ballad titled "Scarborough Fair" was by actor/singers Gordon Heath and Lee Payant, Americans who ran a cafe and nightclub, L'Abbaye, on the Rive Gauche in Paris. They recorded the song on the Elektra album "Encores From The Abbaye" in 1955. Their version has the common "Scarborough Fair" lyrics, but not the common melody, but the melody from Frank Kidson's collection "Traditional Tunes", published in 1891
The song was also included on A. L. Lloyd's album "The English And Scottish Popular Ballads, Vol. IV" (Released in 1956 on a Double-album on the Riverside Label RLP 12-627/628)
Lloyd's version was also derived from Mr Frank Kidson's book "Traditional Tunes" (1891) page 43. In Kidson's book it says: as sung "in Whitby streets twenty or thirty years ago,". So that would be the 1860's or 1870's. Whitby is located 20 km north of Scarborough.
In 1956 John Langstaff recorded a version titled "The Lover's Tasks", which he learned from Cecil Sharp's "Folk Songs From Somerset" (3rd Series song # LXIV (1906)
It has the common "Scarborough Fair" lyrics, but used yet a different melody.
Click on the next link for "The Lover's Tasks" (and click again to zoom in on this page)
Click on the next link to read Cecil Sharp's notes on this song
The version using the lyrics and the melody later used by Simon & Garfunkel in "Scarborough Fair/Canticle" was first recorded on a 1956 album, "English Folk Songs", by Audrey Coppard.
According to the liner-notes she had sung in clubs in London and given a number of concerts. These last were organized by A.L. Lloyd and Ewan MacColl, to whom she is indebted for introducing her to several of the songs on her album.
Also in the liner-notes it says:
Yorkshire. Here again, this song exists in many different versions, the name of the town being changed to fit in with the district in which it is sung. "Scarborough Fair” is a descendent of the folk song, "Seeds of Love. "
Well, above, we have heard A.L. Lloyd´s version of "Scarborough Fair", with the diffferent melody.
Ewan MacColl would record "Scarborough Fair" one year later (using the commonly known melody also used by Coppard and (much later) Simon & Garfunkel)
MacColl's recording of his version appeared in 1957 on the LP "Matching Songs For The British Isles And America" (Riverside RLP 12-637)
Ewan MacColl and Peggy Seeger - Matching Songs Of The British Isles And America
The song was also included on MacColl and Peggy Seeger's songbook "The Singing Island" (1960),
According to the notes in "The Singing Island", MacColl had collected this particular variant in 1947 from "Mark Anderson, retired lead.miner of Middleton-in-Teasdale, Yorkshire"
Mark Anderson made a few recordings for Alan Lomax at the High Force Hotel in April 1951, but apparently "Scarborough Fair" wasn't among them.
And here's an interview between Alan Lomax and Mark Anderson.
In "Legacies of Ewan MacColl: The Last Interview", MacColl says he recorded the song for the BBC TV series "The Song Hunter". This was around 1953/1954. He said he learned the song from Mark Anderson from Middleton-in-Teasdale in 1949.
During that 1949 meeting – believed to have been at Mr Anderson’s home at Howgill, near Newbiggin – Mr Anderson performed several songs, including "Scarborough Fair".
Ewan MacColl: The Last Interview
In October 1956 Milton Okun and Ellen Stekert recorded a version of "Cambric Shirt".
It also has the common "Scarborough Fair" lyrics, but used yet a different melody.
Listen here: http://www.harbel.one/okun/mp3/ScarboroughFair.mp3
In 1957 Jean Ritchie and Oscar Brand also recorded this version of "Cambric Shirt".
Shirley Collins sang "Scarborough Fair" unaccompanied in 1960 on her second album, "False True Lovers". She used the now commonly known melody.
Recorded by Alan Lomax and Peter Kennedy in Peter Kennedy's house in Belsize Park, London, in 1958 in a two-day session.
It is likely that both Audrey Coppard and Shirley Collins learned it from MacColl.
According to the Teesdale Mercury and Martin Carthy's daughter, it emerged that researcher-musician MacColl wrote a book of Teesdale folk songs after hearing Mark Anderson sing in the late 1940s. The book included Anderson's rendition of a little-known song called "Scarborough Fair". However, according to Alan Lomax, MacColl's source was probably Cecil Sharp's "One Hundred English Folk Songs", published in 1916.
But as you can see in the link above, Cecil Sharp's version of "Scarborough Fair" has yet another melody than the commonly known melody. In 1987 the Cecil Sharp-version was recorded by Shura Gehrman.
Martin Carthy, who had picked up the song from "The Singing Island" (1960, p. 26), an influential songbook compiled by Peggy Seeger and Ewan MacColl, included it on his 1965 debut solo album. He only edited the tune and the text a little bit and dropped three of the eight verses.
In the sleeve notes Carthy says:
Folklorists and students of plant mythology are well aware that certain herbs were held to have magical significance—that they were used by sorcerers in their spells and conversely as counter-spells by those that wished to outwit them. The herbs mentioned in the refrain of Scarborough Fair (parsley, sage, rosemary and thyme) are all known to have been closely associated with death and also as charms against the evil eye.
While in London in 1962, Bob Dylan met several figures in the local folk scene, including English folksinger Martin Carthy.
Carthy exposed Dylan to a repertoire of traditional English ballads, including Carthy's own arrangement of "Scarborough Fair", which Dylan drew upon for aspects of the melody and lyrics of "Girl from the North Country", including the line from the refrain "Remember me to one who lives there, she once was a true love of mine".
If you're travelin' in the north country fair
Where the winds hit heavy on the borderline
Remember me to one who lives there
She once was a true love of mine
Musically, this song is nearly identical to his composition "Boots of Spanish Leather", composed and recorded one year later for the album "The Times They Are a-Changin".
Paul Simon also learned the song from Martin Carthy, while in London in 1965. Simon was very charmed by Carthy's guitar arrangement of "Scarborough Fair" and copied this one year later for the Simon & Garfunkel version of the song. They set it in counterpoint with "Canticle" – a reworking of the lyrics from Simon's 1963 anti-war song, "The Side of a Hill", set to a new melody composed mainly by Art Garfunkel.
And here's "This Side Of A Hill", which Paul Simon recorded for his 1965 solo-album
In April 1966, Marianne Faithfull recorded and released her own take on "Scarborough Fair" on her album North Country Maid about six months prior to Simon & Garfunkel's release of their single version of the song in October 1966.
North Country Maid | Marianne Faithfull
The Dutch rock group Brainbox recorded it in 1969.
In 2013, in season 2 of The Voice Australia, Celia Pavey made a lot of impression with her presentation of the song.
Liz Jefferies sang this song, with the unusual title "Rosemary Lane", to Barry and Chris Morgan in their own home in Bristol in September 1976. In fact this version is a reworking of Thomas Moran's "Strawberry Lane".
This recording can be found on the anthology As Me and My Love Sat Courting (The Voice of the People Series Volume 15; Topic 1998).
Bellowhead recorded "Rosemary Lane" in 2014 for their Island record "Revival". They followed the version by Liz Jefferies (as you can read in the comments of their CD)
Bellowhead also gives a Track by Track explanation of the songs on their CD:
In 1927 The English Singers recorded "An Acre Of Land", which is a sub-version of Child #2 : "The Elfin Knight". This version was arranged by Ralph Vaughan Williams
A very thorough study of the song can be found here
"...Tell Her To Make Me A Cambric Shirt" - From The "Elfin Knight" to "Scarborough Fair"
"...She Once Was A True Love Of Mine" - Some Notes About Bob Dylan's "Girl From The North Country"
Many more versions here (click on #2 "The Elfin Knight"):
zondag 9 juli 2017
"Champagne Charlie" is a music hall song composed in 1866 by Alfred Lee with lyrics by George Leybourne (real name Joseph Saunders).
Leybourne popularised the song which premièred in August 1866 at the Princess' Concert Hall in Leeds. For the act, he caused some controversy when he appeared in a cut down top hat, similar to a style worn by the murderer Franz Muller. It was one of Leybourne's most famous songs and he would later be nicknamed Champagne Charlie.
Joe Saunders (1842-84) was a Birmingham factory worker who, under his stage name George Leybourne, lauded the delights of champagne for a tidy sum. In the book Folksong & Music Hall, author Edward Lee says the song "Champagne Charlie" which Leybourne introduced in 1866 was sponsored by the champagne firms, was an instant success and boosted his income from 25 pounds to 120 pounds a week, an enormous sum for a working man in those days. On stage, Leybourne created the character of Champagne Charlie, and "His act was popular largely because of its appeal to the mixture of mockery and admiration which audiences of the time felt towards the type of rich man with a private income, who lived and dressed flashily, and spent his time wandering from one London entertainment to another." Leybourne's life mirrored his act; "he lived furiously, drank heavily, and died early". The music for "Champagne Charlie" was composed by Alfred Lee, and the words were written by Leybourne himself.
The sheet music was also published in the United States - by S.T. Gordon of New York, and at San Francisco by Gray's Music Store, whose copy credits it "As sung with great success by Miss Ada Webb".
But already in 1767 "Champage Charlie" was the nickname of Charles Townshend.
Charles_Townshend (1725-1767) was the British Chancellor of the Exchequer in the mid-1769s responsible for the Customs duties on tea, glass, lead, paper, paper, alcohol, and painter’s colors that became known as “Townshend duties.” Many modern histories say he was nicknamed "Champagne Charley" or "Charlie", but that phrase arose nearly a century after his death. Townshend did like champagne. His taste became notorious after he delivered a striking speech ("the champagne speech") in the House of Commons on 8 May 1767.
The first recording of the song I could find was part of a medley.
(o) Victor Mixed Chorus (1916) (in the medley "Songs of the past, no. 19")
Recorded June 28, 1916
Released on Victor 35585
(c) Robert Sterling (=Halfdan Meyer) (1917) (as "Champagne Charley")
Sung in the Norwegian language.
Recorded October 18, 1917 in New York
Released on Victor 72259
Robert Sterling was a nick-name for the Norwegian artist Halfdan Meyer.
(c) Jay Wilbur and his Band (1931) (as part of the "Old Timers Medley part 1")
Recorded October 1, 1931 in London
Released on Imperial 2569
(c) Jack Leon's Band (1931) (as part of the "Old Timers-Selection part 2")
Recorded December 1931 in London
Released on Piccadilly 889
(c) Blind Blake (1932) (as "Champagne Charlie Is My Name")
Recorded June 1932 in Grafton, WI
Released on Paramount 13137
A contemporary play called Champagne Charlie was written about Leybourne, and in 1944 this was made into a film featuring Tommy Trinder and Stanley Holloway, with Trinder in the title role.
Here´s the complete movie ("Champagne Charlie" starts at 35 min and 19 sec)
(c) Tommy Trinder (1944) (as "Champagne Charlie")
Recorded August 1944 from the soundtrack of the Ealing Studios film "Champagne Charlie".
(c) Leon Redbone (1978)
On the album "Champagne Charlie".
By the time Redbone recorded the song, it was in the public domain.
maandag 3 juli 2017
The Song of the Contrabands (1861) / Go Down Moses (1914) / Way Down In Egypt Land (1939) / Let My People Go
"Go Down Moses" is an African American spiritual, that dates from before the Civil War.
It describes events in the Old Testament of the Bible, specifically Exodus 8:1: "And the Lord spake unto Moses, Go unto Pharaoh, and say unto him, Thus saith the Lord, Let my people go, that they may serve me", in which God commands Moses to demand the release of the Israelites from bondage in Egypt.
In the song "Israel" represents the African-American slaves while "Egypt" and "Pharaoh" represent the slavemaster. Going "down" to Egypt is derived from the Biblical origin; Moses was up on the mountain of God when God commanded him to go to Egypt (Exodus 3:1-12). Also, the Bible generally recognizes Egypt as being at a lower altitude than Jerusalem and other core areas of Israelite territory; thus, going to Egypt means going "down" while going away from Egypt is "up".
In the context of American slavery, this ancient sense of "down" converged with the concept of "down the river" (the Mississippi), where slaves' conditions were notoriously worse, a situation which left the idiom "sell [someone] down the river" in present-day English
"Go Down Moses" was published on sheet music in 1861 under title "The Song of the Contrabands 'O Let My People Go'")
This Song, originated among the "Contrabands" (a contraband was a slave who escaped to the north during the Civil War) and was first heard sung by them on their arrival at Fort Monroe; and was introduced here by their Chaplain: Rev. Lewis Conger Lockwood.
A comment by Lockwood on the last page of this sheet music says: This Song has been sung for about nine years by the Slaves of Virginia
Go Down, Moses
Go Down, Moses - Hymnary.org
"Go Down Moses" was also published on page 22 in the Jubilee Songs (1872), made popular by the Jubilee Singers of Fisk University in their concert tours. In a tour of Great Britain and Europe in 1873, the group, by then with 11 members, performed "Steal Away to Jesus" and "Go Down, Moses" for Queen Victoria in April. According to local oral tradition, Queen Victoria was so impressed by the Singers that she commented that with such beautiful voices, they had to be from the Music City of the United States. Hence, the moniker for Nashville, Tennessee - Music City USA - was born.
In 1877 "Go Down Moses" was published in J. B. T. Marsh's The Story of the Jubilee Singers with their Songs
"Go Down Moses" is also on page 56 of Henry Randall Waite's "College Songs: A Collection of New and Popular Songs of the American Colleges" (1887)
And it´s also on page 153 of Thomas P Fenner's "Religious Folk Songs of the Negro as Sung on the Plantations"
First recording I could find:
(o) Tuskegee Institute Singers (1914)
Recorded August 31, 1914 in New York
Released on Victor 17688
(c) Reed Miller (1918) (as "Go Down Moses")
Released October 1918 on Edison Blue Amberol: 3574
Also released on Edison Record: 6028 and 80487
Listen here: http://cylinders.library.ucsb.edu/mp3s/7000/7380/cusb-cyl7380d.mp3
In 1917 Harry T. Burleigh wrote a new arrangement of this spiritual and a few years later also made a very rare recording on the first African-American Owned And Operated Record label of George W. Broome.
(c) Harry T. Burleigh (1919)
Released September 1919 on Broome Special Phonograph Records #51
(c) Bentley Ball (1920) (as "Go Down Moses")
Recorded January 1920
Released on Columbia A3086
(c) Noble Sissle's Southland Singers(1921) (as "Go Down Moses")
Recorded early 1920 in New York City
Released in 1921 on Pathe 20488
(c) Virginia Female Jubilee Singers (1921) (as "Go Down Moses Way Down in Egypt land")
Recorded September 1921 in New York
Released on Okeh 4437
(c) Roland Hayes (1922) (as "Go Down Moses (Let My People Go)")
Lawrence Brown: piano
Recorded 1922 in London
Released in December 1922 on Vocalion R-6097 (in the UK)
And in February 1923 on single-sided Vocalion B-3032 (in the UK)
Also released in 1923 on (red wax) Vocalion 21002 (in the USA)
Re-released in 1927 on Vocalion 1073 (in the USA)
Also re-released in 1930 on Supertone 2238 (in the USA)
(c) Marian Anderson (1924) (as "Go Down Moses (Let My People Go)")
Recorded May 29, 1924 in Camden, New Jersey
Released on Victor 19370
(c) Wheat Street Female Quartet (1925) (as "Go Down, Moses")
Recorded January 29, 1925 in Atlanta, GA.
Released on Columbia 14067-D
(c) Paul Robeson (1930) (as "Go Down, Moses")
Lawrence Brown (Piano)
Recorded February 27, 1930
Released on HMV B-3381
(c) Golden Gate Jubilee Quartet (1939) (as "Way Down In Egypt Land")
Recorded October 6, 1939 in Rock Hil, South Carolina
Released on Bluebird B-8306 and Montgomery Ward 8775
University Singers, "Go Down Moses" (Cameo 530, 1924)
Cotton Belt Quartet, "Go Down Moses" (Vocalion 1024, 1926)
Tuskegee Quartet, "Go Down Moses" (Victor 20518, 1927; rec. 1926)
University of North Carolina Club, "Go Down, Moses" (Brunswick 3161, 1926)
Big Bethel Choir, "Go Down Moses" (Victor 20498, 1927)
Edna Thomas, "Go Down, Moses" (Columbia 1606-D, 1928)
Rev. H. B. Jackson, "Go Down Moses" (OKeh 8804, 1930; rec. 1929)
Rev. Fullbosom, "Moses Go Down into Pharoahland" (Paramount 13078, 1931 - a recorded song/sermon)
Ebony Three, "Go Down Moses" (Decca 7527, 1938)
Charioteers, "Go Down Moses" (Columbia 35718, 1940; rec. 1939)
Southern Sons, "Go Down Moses" (Bluebird B-8808, 1941)
Hampton Institute Quartette, "Go Down Moses" (RCA 27472, 1941)
Harmonizing Four, "Go Down Moses" (Vee Jay 864, rec. 1958)
On February 7, 1958, the song was recorded in New York City and sung by Louis Armstrong with Sy Oliver's Orchestra.
Released on the album "Louis and the Good Book"
(c) Pete Seeger (1961) (as "Go Down Moses")
Released on Folkways Records FA 2323
(c) Bob Dylan (1987) (as "Go Down Moses")
Dylan played the song live on 2 occasions
September 5, 1987 at Hayarkon Park Tel-Aviv, Israel
October 17, 1987 at Wembley Arena London, England
•Bob Dylan (vocal & guitar)
•Tom Petty (guitar)
•Mike Campbell (guitar)
•Benmont Tench (keyboards)
•Howie Epstein (bass)
•Stan Lynch (drums)
•The Queens Of Rhythm: Carolyn Dennis, Queen Esther Marrow, Madelyn Quebec (backing vocals).
The Neville Brothers sang it at Woodstock 1994 (as "Let My People Go")
The song heavily influences "Get Down Moses", by Joe Strummer & the Mescaleros on their album Streetcore (2003).
(c) Brendan Croker & Bruno Deneckere (2010) (as "Let My People Go")
More versions here: http://www.originals.be/en/originals/11969
According to Religious Studies professor and Civil Rights historian Charles Marsh, it was African American Civil Rights leader Fannie Lou Hamer who combined "Go Tell It On The Mountain" with "Go Down Moses", taking the last line of the chorus, "Let my people go" and substituting it in the chorus of "Go Tell it on the Mountain".